Exam - Wed 31, Aug 2022

Scientific Programming - Data Science Master @ University of Trento

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Part A - I CHING Divination (32 points)

NOTICE: this part of the exam was ported to softpython website

There you can find a more curated version (notice it may be longer than here)

The I Ching or Book of Changes, is a chinese divination manual and one of the world’s oldest books, dating from over 3,000 years ago. The great mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646 - 1716) is considered the first information theorist, and extensively documented the binary numeral system. Leibniz was also interested in Chinese culture, and saw in the I Ching diagrams showing solid and broken lines called yin and yang, which progressed in a sequence: that was unmistakably a binary encoding. You will parse a dataset of hexagrams and develop a divinator software which will predict the outcome of your exam. Open Jupyter and start editing this notebook exam-2022-08-31.ipynb

Data source: Wikipedia, July 2021, Bagua page

The dataset

Yin and yang: Yin and yang are represented by lines:





- -





Trigrams: Different constructions of three yin and yang lines lead to 8 trigrams. We can express a trigram as a sequence of bits, reading lines from bottom to top. For example Fire is 101, Thunder is 100.


Hexagrams: Combining a lower trigram with an upper trigram leads to 64 hexagrams. Each hexagram can be represented as a sequence of bits and the outcome of a divination. For example trigrams Fire (lower) and Thunder (upper) gives outcome hexagram Abounding: 101100


1. load_db (14 points)

Parse iching.csv and output a dictionary mapping each sequence to a dictionary with all the information you can extract. Use CSV reader.

  • in headers and first column you will find a bit sequence like 011

  • in body cells, you will not find a bit sequence: you will have to determine it according to the corresponding tri-sequences from the header and first column

  • note for hexagrams you must extract only name-en, ignore the decimal numbers

Example (complete output is in file expected_iching_db.py):

>>> load_db('iching.csv')
    '111': {'name-en': 'Heaven', 'name-ch': '乾', 'spelling': 'Qián'}
    '000': {'name-en': 'Earth', 'name-ch': '坤', 'spelling': 'Kūn'}
    '100': {'name-en': 'Thunder', 'name-ch': '震', 'spelling': 'Zhèn'}
    '010': {'name-en': 'Water', 'name-ch': '坎', 'spelling': 'Kǎn'}
    '001': {'name-en': 'Mountain', 'name-ch': '艮', 'spelling': 'Gèn'}
    '011': {'name-en': 'Air', 'name-ch': '巽', 'spelling': 'Xùn'}
    '101': {'name-en': 'Fire', 'name-ch': '離', 'spelling': 'Lí'}
    '110': {'name-en': 'Lake', 'name-ch': '兌', 'spelling': 'Duì'}
 '111111': {'name-en': 'Force'}
 '111000': {'name-en': 'Pervading'}
 '111100': {'name-en': 'Great Invigorating'}
 '111010': {'name-en': 'Attending'}
 '111001': {'name-en': 'Great Accumulating'}
 '111011': {'name-en': 'Small Harvest'}
 '111101': {'name-en': 'Great Possessing'}
Show solution
import csv

def load_db(filepath):
    raise Exception('TODO IMPLEMENT ME !')

iching_db = load_db('iching.csv')

from pprint import pformat; from expected_iching_db import expected_iching_db
for seq in expected_iching_db.keys():
    if seq not in iching_db: print('\nERROR: MISSING sequence', seq); break
    for k in expected_iching_db[seq]:
        if k not in iching_db[seq]:
            print('\nERROR at sequence', seq,'\n\n   MISSING key:', k); break
        if expected_iching_db[seq][k] != iching_db[seq][k]:
            print('\nERROR at sequence', seq, 'key:',k)
            print('  ACTUAL:\n', pformat(iching_db[seq][k]))
            print('  EXPECTED:\n', pformat(expected_iching_db[seq][k]))

2. divine (10 points)

A divination is done by flipping 3 coins to determine the bottom trigram (bottom up order), flipping other three coins for the upper trigram (again bottom up order), and then the union gives the resulting hexagram. Write a function that PRINTS the process as in the example and RETURNS a string of bits representing the resulting hexagram

HINT: to flip coins use random.randint(0,1)


>>> divination = divine(iching_db, "Will I pass the exam?")
>>> print("\nRETURNED:", divination)
Dear stranger, welcome to SCIPROG I CHING 易經 DIVINATOR

Tell me your question...

        Will I pass the exam?

The coin says 'heads' : we get a yang ---
The coin says 'tails' : we get a  yin - -
The coin says 'heads' : we get a yang ---

The sacred bottom trigram is:


   - -

The coin says 'heads' : we get a yang ---
The coin says 'tails' : we get a  yin - -
The coin says 'tails' : we get a  yin - -

The sacred upper trigram is:


   - -
   - -

The final response hexagram is...


   - -
   - -
   - -

RETURNED: 101100
Show solution

import random def divine(iching, question): #THE SEED DETERMINES FOLLOWING randint RESULTS random.seed(109) # Abounding # Thunder # Fire #IMPORTANT: try also this seed to check lines visualization order #random.seed(1) # # Infiltrating 001011 # Air --- # --- # - - # Mountain --- # - - # - - raise Exception('TODO IMPLEMENT ME !') divination = divine(iching_db, "Will I pass the exam?") print("\nRETURNED:", divination)

3. plot_divination (8 points)

Given a divination as a string of bits, plot the divination. First draw the lines, then the rest if you have time. Make it fancy with these examples. To center text you can use these parameters: ha='center', va='center'


Show solution

%matplotlib inline import matplotlib.pyplot as plt def plot_divination(iching, question, divination): raise Exception('TODO IMPLEMENT ME !') plot_divination(iching_db, "Will I pass sciprog exam?", '101100') # Abounding #plot_divination(iching_db, "Will I pass programming exam?", '111011') # Small Harvest #plot_divination(iching_db, "Will I pass programming exam?",'001011') # Infiltrating

Part B (32 points)

  • Open Visual Studio Code and start editing the folder on your desktop

B1.1 Complexity (8 points)

Given a list L of n elements, please compute the asymptotic computational complexity of the myFun function, explaining your reasoning.

Write the solution in separate ``theory.txt`` file

def my_fun2(L):
    n = len(L)
    tmp = []
    for i in range(n):
        for j in range(n):
    return tmp

def my_fun(L):
    n = len(L)
    if n <= 1:
        return 1
        L1 = L[0:n//4]
        L2 = L[n//4:]
        a = my_fun(L1) + max(my_fun2(L1))
        b = my_fun(L2) + max(my_fun2(L2))
        return a - b

B1.2 Graphs (8 points)

Describe the differences between the Depth-First and the Breadth-First Search algorithms for visiting graphs. Then, apply BFS to the graph below (write down the visit order only).


B2. chains (8 points)

def chain(external_list):
    """ Takes a list of list of strings and return a list containing all
        the strings  from external_list in sequence, joined by the ending
        and starting strings of the internal lists. See tests for more examples.

        INPUT: a list of list of strings , like:

                    ['ab', 'c', 'de'],
                    ['gh', 'i'],
                    ['de', 'f', 'gh']

        OUTPUT: a list of strings, like   ['ab', 'c', 'de', 'f', 'gh', 'i']

Assume that:

  • external_list always contains at least one internal list

  • internal lists always contain at least two strings

  • no string is duplicated among all internal lists

Output sequence is constructed as follows:

  • it starts will all the items from the first internal list

  • successive items are taken from an internal list which starts with a string equal to the previous taken internal list last string

  • sequence must not contain repetitions (so joint strings are taken only once).

  • all internal lists must be used. If this is not possible (because there are no joint strings), raise ValueError

  • MUST RUN IN \(O(m * n)\), where \(m\) is the number of internal lists and \(n\) is the length of the longest internal list (just to calculate complexity think about the scenario where all lists have equal size)

  • DO NOT use python search methods (so no .index, .find, .count …) nor regexes

  • HINT: Given the above constraints, whenever you find a string, you cannot start another for loop to check if the string exists elsewhere (that would likely introduce a quadratic \(m^2\) factor)

Testing: python3 -m unittest chains_test.TestChain

B3 linked list pivot (8 points)

def pivot(self):
    """ Selects first node data as pivot, and then MOVES before the pivot
        all the nodes which have data value STRICTLY LESS (<) than the pivot.
        Finally, RETURN the number of moved nodes.

        - *DO NOT* create new nodes
        - nodes less than pivot must be in the reversed order they were found
        - nodes greater or equal than pivot will maintain the original order
        - MUST EXECUTE in O(n), where n is the list size

Testing: python3 -m unittest linked_list_test.PivotTest


from linked_list_sol import *
from linked_list_test import to_ll

ll = to_ll([7, 12, 1, 3, 8, 9, 6, 4, 7, 2, 10])
LinkedList: 7,12,1,3,8,9,6,4,7,2,10
res = ll.pivot()
res   # there were 5 elements strictly less than pivot 7

Note elements \(< 7\) are in reverse order in which they were found, elements \(\geq7\) are in the original order

LinkedList: 2,4,6,3,1,7,12,8,9,7,10
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